Species Survival Plan

The Species Survival Plan (SSP) is a cooperative breeding and conservation program administered through the Association of Zoos and Aquariums  (AZA). It is recognized that captive breeding is not the sole solution to the numerous species that are experiencing major declines in the wild. However, in certain cases, scientifically managed breeding programs, along with public education, scientific research, habitat preservation and reintroduction are essential to species recovery.


In 1984, the Puerto Rican crested toad became the first amphibian to receive SSP status and is considered a Green SSP, since the population is greater than 50 individuals and is able to maintain over 90% genetic diversity at 100 years or 10 generations. The SSP is guided by a working master plan that defines goals and objectives for the program. Recovery goals include island-wide education outreach, protection and restoration of existing habitat, creation of new ponds to support six self-sustaining metapopulations (three in the north and three in the south) and research. The PRCT SSP has developed many partnerships over the years and recovery efforts are executed through an MOU between the USFWS, PRDNER and AZA SSP.


PRCT SSP Management Committee and Advisors:

Diane Barber, Coordinator, Fort Worth Zoo

Dustin Smith, Vice Coordinator and Studbook Keeper,  Zoo Miami


Jessi Krebs, Advisor, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo

Bob Johnson, Advisor, Toronto Zoo

Andrew Lentini, Advisor, Toronto Zoo


Mindy Sommer, Education Advisor, Disney’s Animal Kingdom


Dean Williams, Genetic Advisor, Texas Christian University

Kaela Beauclerc, Genetic Advisor,  Trent University, Ontario, Canada

Robert Barber, Genetic Advisor, University of North Texas Health and Science Center


Jessica Ray, Population Biology Advisor, Lincoln Park Zoo


Andy Kouba, Reproductive Physiology Advisor, Memphis Zoo


Eduardo Valdes, Nutrition Advisor, Disney’s Animal Kingdom


Graham Crawshaw, Veterinary Advisor, Toronto Zoo

Ryan De Voe, Veterinary Advisor, Disney’s Animal Kingdom

Shannon Ferrell, Veterinary Advisor, Granby Zoo, Québec, Canada

Jenessa Gjeltema, Veterinary Research Advisor, North Carolina State University


Carlos Pacheco, Field Advisor, USFWS, Caribbean Office, Puerto Rico


2014 SSP Captive Breeding Member Institutions:


Buffalo Zoological Gardens, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Detroit Zoo, Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Fort Worth Zoo, Jacksonville Zoo, Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo, Nashville Zoo, Oakland Zoo, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo, Potter Park Zoo, Queens Zoo, San Antonio Zoo, Sedgwick County Zoo, Toronto Zoo, Zoo Miami.


2014 SSP Contributing Member Institutions

FWZ Logo Oakland Zoo LogoSan Antonio Zoo Logo